I'm using Amazon EC2, Ubuntu 16.04.

I noticed this problem when I try to generate a pdf file from php, the filename was not the right chinese character.

Chinese character not able to input to console

Solved

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$ sudo apt-get install language-pack-zh*
$ sudo apt-get install chinese*

(If you need korean & japanese language)

Japanese language

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$ sudo apt-get install language-pack-ja*
$ sudo apt-get install japan*

Korean language

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$ sudo apt-get install language-pack-ko*
$ sudo apt-get install korean*

Lastly

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$ sudo apt-get install fonts-arphic-ukai fonts-arphic-uming fonts-ipafont-mincho fonts-ipafont-gothic fonts-unfonts-core

After installed everything, reboot the server.

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$ sudo reboot

References: